His ethics are based on eudaimonia, variously translated as "happiness," "prosperity," "flourishing," or "success. In any case, the fact that something is universally approved does not make it right.
The Republic develops the view that being a good person in an ethical sense involves achieving internal harmony of the parts of the soul. Research in evolutionary theory applied to social behaviour, however, has shown that evolution need not be so ruthless.
From the standpoint of ethics, whether human moral codes closely Ethics essay history one another or are extraordinarily diversethe question of how an individual should act remains open.
This reflective stage emerged long after human societies had developed some kind of morality, usually in the form of customary standards of right and wrong conduct. Twentieth century[ edit ] The early twentieth century saw many debates on metaethicsthat is, philosophical theory on the nature of ethics.
When apparent altruism is not between kin, it may be based on reciprocity. Beyond this common ground, the variations in moral attitudes soon become more striking than the similarities. For example, murder Ethics essay history wrong because life is essential to humans so depriving someone of it is inherently an evil.
It may be a fact that concern for kin is in accord with evolutionary theory, but to say that concern for kin is therefore right would be to attempt to deduce values from facts see below The climax of moral sense theory: The Stoics thought the greatest good not pleasure but reason and everything in accord with reason, even if painful.
Some of this research, however, also indicates that people sometimes use reasoning processes to reach moral judgments that contradict their usual intuitive responses. Prehuman ethics Nonhuman behaviour Because, for obvious reasons, there is no historical record of a human society in the period before it had any standards of right and wrong, history cannot reveal the origins of morality.
If he helps everyone indiscriminately, he will find himself delousing others without getting his own lice removed.
It would be difficult to find a society that did not recognize, at least under some circumstances, an obligation to return favours. Thus, a system of punishment and a notion of just desert constitute the other side of reciprocal altruism.
The most obvious examples are those in which parents make sacrifices for their offspring. More recent, though less comprehensivestudies have confirmed that human societies can and do flourish while holding radically different views about all such matters—though of course various groups within a society may do less well under some sets of beliefs than others.
In his personal life, Socrates lived extremely morally. With some exceptions, social animals generally either refrain altogether from attacking other members of the social group or, if an attack does take place, do not make the ensuing struggle a fight to the death—it is over when the weaker animal shows submissive behaviour.
It seems therefore that, even for those who believe in the existence of God, it is impossible to give a satisfactory account of the origin of morality in terms of divine creation.
Dolphins support other sick or injured dolphins, swimming under them for hours at a time and pushing them to the surface so they can breathe.
Kinship is a source of obligation in every human society.
This is the start of a process of cultural development of moral codes. Like humans, social animals may behave in ways that benefit other members of the group at some cost or risk to themselves.
A different account is needed. The pursuit of and love of the good itself rather than any particular good thing Socrates thought was the chief aim of education and especially of philosophy.
It may be thought that the existence of such apparently altruistic behaviour is odd, for evolutionary theory states that those who do not struggle to survive and reproduce will be eliminated through natural selection.Essay on Virtue Ethics and Business Ethics Virtue Ethics and Business Ethics When considering Aristotelian ethics and then placing them in the context of modern business practices, it is important to note that the Greek paradigm was very different to that of our own in the modernist age.
In Essays on the History of Ethics Michael Slote collects his essays that deal with aspects of both ancient and modern ethical thought and seek to point out conceptual/normative comparisons and contrasts among different views.
Donna Walker Health Safety and Nutrition () Cassidy Longmeyer September 7, Work Ethics 2 Work Ethics Work Ethics is a cultural norm that advocates being personally accountable and responsible for the work that one does and is based on a belief that work has intrinsic value.
Ethics is the branch of philosophy that examines right and wrong moral behavior, moral concepts and moral language. Various ethical theories pose various answers to the question "What is the greatest good?" and elaborate a complete set of proper behaviors for individuals and groups.
Ethical theories are closely related to forms of life in various social orders. Although ethics has always been viewed as a branch of philosophy, its all-embracing practical nature links it with many other areas of study, including anthropology, biology, economics, history, politics, sociology, and theology.
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